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Current progress in dengue vaccines
1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan
2 Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
3 Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan
4 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan
5 Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan, Taiwan
6 Departments of Microbiology & Immunology and Pediatrics, and Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Journal of Biomedical Science 2013, 20:37 doi:10.1186/1423-0127-20-37Published: 13 June 2013
Dengue is one of the most important emerging vector-borne viral diseases. There are four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV), each of which is capable of causing self-limited dengue fever (DF) or even life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The major clinical manifestations of severe DENV disease are vascular leakage, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage, yet the detailed mechanisms are not fully resolved. Besides the direct effects of the virus, immunopathological aspects are also involved in the development of dengue symptoms. Although no licensed dengue vaccine is yet available, several vaccine candidates are under development, including live attenuated virus vaccines, live chimeric virus vaccines, inactivated virus vaccines, and live recombinant, DNA and subunit vaccines. The live attenuated virus vaccines and live chimeric virus vaccines are undergoing clinical evaluation. The other vaccine candidates have been evaluated in preclinical animal models or are being prepared for clinical trials. For the safety and efficacy of dengue vaccines, the immunopathogenic complications such as antibody-mediated enhancement and autoimmunity of dengue disease need to be considered.