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Mechanisms of the antinociceptive action of (−) Epicatechin obtained from the hydroalcoholic fraction of Combretum leprosum Mart & Eic in rodents
1 NPPM – Medicinal Plants Research Center, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Av. Nossa Senhora de Fátima s/n, 64049-550, Teresina, PI, Brazil
2 Department of Chemistry, Natural Sciences Center/UFPI, Teresina, PI, Brazil
Journal of Biomedical Science 2012, 19:68 doi:10.1186/1423-0127-19-68Published: 25 July 2012
The mechanisms of the antinociceptive activity of (−) epicatechin (EPI), a compound isolated from the hydroalcoholic fraction of Combreum leprosum Mart & Eicher.
were assessed in the model of chemical nociception induced by glutamate (20 μmol/paw). To evaluate the mechanisms involved, the animals , male Swiss mice (25-30 g), received EPI (50 mg/kg p.o.) after pretreatment with naloxone (2 mg/kg s.c. opioid antagonist), glibenclamide (2 mg/kg s.c. antagonist K + channels sensitive to ATP), ketanserin (0.3 mg/kg s.c. antagonist of receptor 5-HT2A), yoimbine (0.15 mg/kg s.c. α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist), pindolol (1 mg/kg s.c. 5-HT1a/1b receptor antagonist), atropine (0.1 mg/kg s.c. muscarinic antagonist) and caffeine (3 mg/kg s.c. adenosine receptor antagonist), ondansetron (0.5 mg/kg s.c. for 5-HT3 receptor) and L-arginine (600 mg/kg i.p.).
The antinociceptive effect of EPI was reversed by pretreatment with naloxone and glibenclamide, ketanserin, yoimbine, atropine and pindolol, which demonstrates the involvement of opioid receptors and potassium channels sensitive to ATP, the serotoninergic (receptor 5HT1A and 5HT2A), adrenergic (receptor alpha 2) and cholinergic (muscarinic receptor) systems in the activities that were observed. The effects of EPI, however, were not reversed by pretreatment with caffeine, L-arginine or ondansetron, which shows that there is no involvement of 5HT3 receptors or the purinergic and nitrergic systems in the antinociceptive effect of EPI. In the Open Field and Rotarod test, EPI had no significant effect, which shows that there was no central nervous system depressant or muscle relaxant effect on the results.
This study demonstrates that the antinociceptive activity of EPI in the glutamate model involves the participation of the opioid system, serotonin, adrenergic and cholinergic.