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The ubiquitin–proteasome system and signal transduction pathways regulating Epithelial Mesenchymal transition of cancer
Centre Pluridisciplinaire d’Oncologie, BH06, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Bugnon 46, Lausanne, 1011, Switzerland
Journal of Biomedical Science 2012, 19:67 doi:10.1186/1423-0127-19-67Published: 24 July 2012
Epithelial to Mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer, a process permitting cancer cells to become mobile and metastatic, has a signaling hardwire forged from development. Multiple signaling pathways that regulate carcinogenesis enabling characteristics in neoplastic cells such as proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and angiogenesis are also the main players in EMT. These pathways, as almost all cellular processes, are in their turn regulated by ubiquitination and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). Ubiquitination is the covalent link of target proteins with the small protein ubiquitin and serves as a signal to target protein degradation by the proteasome or to other outcomes such as endocytosis, degradation by the lysosome or specification of cellular localization. This paper reviews signal transduction pathways regulating EMT and being regulated by ubiquitination.